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A muffler is a device for reducing the amount of noise emitted by a machine. On internal combustion engines, the engine exhaust blows out through the muffler. The internal combustion engine muffler or silencer was developed in parallel with the firearm suppressor by Hiram Percy Maxim.
Mufflers are typically installed along the exhaust pipe as part of the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine (of a vehicle, or stationary) to reduce its exhaust noise. The muffler accomplishes this with a resonating chamber, which is specifically tuned to cause destructive interference, where opposite sound waves cancel each other out.
Catalytic converters also often have a muffling effect. The effect is mainly generated largely by restriction, rather than by cancellation.
Mufflers that reduced backpressure relative to earlier models became increasingly available in the late 20th century, and resulted in increased engine efficiency, performance, power output, and simultaneously decreased overall wear and tear on the engines' components, as well as sound to levels in compliance with the law.
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